[보고서] 

생태계서비스 정책 도입을 위한 자연환경예산 체계 분석 및 재원조달 방안



연구기관명 나라살림연구소

연구책임자 정 창 수

연 구 원 이 왕 재

박 현 숙

이 상 민

연구보조원 박 승 만

백 연 주


목차


1장. 연구의 개요


1절. 연구의 배경 및 목적 ··············································· 3

2절. 연구의 범위 및 내용 ·············································· 3

1. 중앙정부 자연환경 분야 정책과 재정 현황 분석 및 시사점 도출 ··························· 3

2. 자연환경 예산의 단기-중·장기 재원 확보 방안 제시 ···················································· 4

3. 생태계서비스지불제 정책 도입을 위한 세입·세출 구조 제안 ····························· 5

4. 조사 및 분석 방법 ························································ 6

3절. 기대성과 및 향후계획 ································ 6


2장. 생태계서비스와 동향

 

1절. 생태계서비스의 개요 ················································· 9

1. 생태계서비스의 개념 ··········································································· 9

2. 생태계서비스전략의 추진배경 ······························································ 11

3. 생태계서비스전략의 위상 및 근거 ······················································ 11

4. 생태계서비스전략의 비전 및 목표 ······················································ 12

2절. 국외동향 ···································································································· 14

1. 유럽연합의 생태계서비스전략 ······························································ 14

2. 생태계서비스 주요 평가 ·········································································· 14

3. 환경보호 및 생태계서비스 관련 협약 ················································ 16

3절. 국내동향 ···································································································· 17

1. 환경부 ············································································································· 17

2. 농식품부 ········································································································ 19

3. 산림청 ············································································································· 19

4. 해수부 ············································································································· 22

4절. 시사점 ········································································································· 24

1. 국외동향 시사점 ·························································································· 24

2. 국내동향 시사점 ·························································································· 25


3장. 국내·외 생태계서비스지불제 관련 제도


1절. 생태계서비스지불제 개요 ··································································· 29

1. 생태계서비스지불제(PES)의 개념 ························································ 29

2. 생태계서비스지불제(PES)의 의의 ························································ 29

3. 생태계서비스지불제(PES)의 관련 제도 유형 ··································· 30

2절. 환경부 생태계서비스지불제 관련 제도 ········································· 31

1. 생물다양성 관리계약제도 ········································································ 31

2. 생태계보전협력금 ······················································································· 34

3. 물이용부담금제도 ······················································································· 40

4. 국립공원 내 생태우수지역 보전 이용금 징수 시범사업 ············· 43

3절. 타부처 생태계서비스지불제 관련 제도 ········································· 47

1. 농식품부의 농업직접지불제도 ······························································· 47

2. 농식품부의 농지보전부담금 ··································································· 49

3. 농식품부의 대체초지조성비 ··································································· 52

4. 산림청의 대체산림자원조성비 ······························································· 54

5. 해수부의 해양생태계보전협력금 ·························································· 56

6. 국토부의 개발제한구역보전부담금 ····················································· 60

7. 기타 생태계서비스지불제 관련법 ························································ 63

4절. 국외 생태계서비스지불제 관련 제도 ·············································· 64

1. 코스타리카의 산림환경서비스 지불제 ··············································· 64

2. 일본의 생태계서비스지불제(산림환경세) ·········································· 73

5절. 시사점 ·········································································································· 75

1. 환경부 관련 제도의 시사점 ····································································· 75

2. 타부처 관련 제도의 시사점 ····································································· 78

3. 해외 관련 제도의 시사점 ·········································································· 81


4장. 환경부의 자연환경정책과 재정 


1절. 자연환경정책의 개요 ············································································ 85

1. 자연환경정책의 개념 및 범위 ······························································· 85

2. 자연환경보전계획의 개요 ······································································ 86

3. 국가 생물다양성 전략의 개요 ······························································· 94

2절. 자연환경정책 대상 사업 분석 ·························································· 96

1. 환경부 자연보존국의 제3차 자연보존기본계획 대상사업 ········ 97

2. 환경부의 국가생물다양성전략 대상 사업 ········································ 98

3. 환경부의 생태계서비스 대상 사업 분석 ··········································· 104

3절. 자연환경정책관련 재정현황 분석 ··················································· 106

1. 환경보호지출 통계 중 생물다양성 보호 지출 ································· 106

2. 국가재정운용계획 ······················································································· 108

3. 2018년 환경부 세출 예산 ········································································ 109

4절. 시사점 ········································································································· 118

1. 자연환경정책의 시사점 ············································································ 118

2. 대상 사업 분석 시사점 ·············································································· 118

3. 자연환경정책 재정분석 시사점 ····························································· 119


5장. 자연환경 예산의 재원 확보 방안 및 모델제안 


1절. 재원확보 방향 ··························································································· 123

1. 설치 목적에 부합하는 세입 재원 운용 필요 ····································· 123

2. 기본 계획과 사업 예산의 연계성 확보 ················································ 123

3. 환경부의 재원배분의 컨트롤타워로서의 역할 강화 ······················ 124

2절. 재원확보 방안 ··························································································· 124

1. 기존 재원에서 생태계서비스지불제 재원 확보 ······························· 125

2. 새로운 재원 확보 ························································································· 125

3. 중장기 방안 ···································································································· 128


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